Die Scientology-Organisation geht auf den US-Amerikaner Lafayette Ronald ("L. Ron") HUBBARD () zurück, eine schillernde Persönlichkeit, um den. Das Kernstück von L. Ron Hubbards verwaltungstechnischen Entdeckungen ist die Organisierungstafel oder das “Org Board”, wie es allgemeiner bekannt ist. Das. Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (* März in Tilden, Nebraska; † Januar in San Luis Obispo, Kalifornien) war ein US-amerikanischer Science-Fiction-.
L.Ron Hubbard Publikation zur Scientology-Organisation
Lafayette Ronald Hubbard war ein US-amerikanischer Science-Fiction-, Pulp-Magazin- und Selbsthilfe-Autor. gründete er Scientology. Lafayette Ronald Hubbard (* März in Tilden, Nebraska; † Januar in San Luis Obispo, Kalifornien) war ein US-amerikanischer Science-Fiction-. Scientology [ˌsaɪənˈtɒlədʒɪ] ist eine Neue Religiöse Bewegung, deren Lehre auf Schriften des US-amerikanischen Schriftstellers L. Ron Hubbard. L. Ron Hubbard, Schriftsteller und Abenteurer, erforschte den Verstand und entdeckte Wissen und Wahrheiten, mit deren Hilfe man das Leben verbessern und. Die Scientology-Organisation geht auf den US-Amerikaner Lafayette Ronald ("L. Ron") HUBBARD () zurück, eine schillernde Persönlichkeit, um den. Das Kernstück von L. Ron Hubbards verwaltungstechnischen Entdeckungen ist die Organisierungstafel oder das “Org Board”, wie es allgemeiner bekannt ist. Das. Obwohl L. Ron Hubbard am besten durch Dianetics und Scientology bekannt ist, lässt er sich doch nicht so leicht einstufen. Nicht zuletzt war sein Leben zu.
Scientology [ˌsaɪənˈtɒlədʒɪ] ist eine Neue Religiöse Bewegung, deren Lehre auf Schriften des US-amerikanischen Schriftstellers L. Ron Hubbard. Die Scientology-Organisation geht auf den US-Amerikaner Lafayette Ronald ("L. Ron") HUBBARD () zurück, eine schillernde Persönlichkeit, um den. Saint Hill war von 19das Zuhause von L. Ron Hubbard und der Ort, wo er forschte und sein wegweisendes Werk über Verstand und Geist formulierte. Mai In dieser Hinsicht ist die Organisierungstafel nicht einfach die ideale Methode erfolgreichen Organisierens, sie ist die einzige Methode erfolgreichen Organisierens. Aufgrund dessen wurde Htgawm Staffel 3 von Sara Bigamie vorgeworfen, doch kam es nie Top Anime List einem Gerichtsverfahren. In Masken Kaufen Tat wurde L. Die Organisation versucht, insbesondere Schauspieler und andere Personen des öffentlichen Lebens zu rekrutieren, und hat damit in den USA auch Erfolg Movie4k Alle Filme. Die Church of Scientology International organisiert, verbreitet und vermarktet die scientologyspezifischen Produkte und Techniken; insbesondere das Auditing.
Their ultimate aim was to summon a goddess who could give birth to the Antichrist. He created a device called the E-meter, which is allegedly able to determine the enlightenment level of any individual.
If they get the right readings, the individuals are able to proceed to the next level of Scientology. If not, they usually have to pay up for more teachings and practice.
Hubbard was laughed out of England after once using his E-meter on a tomato and suggesting that it could feel pain while being eaten, and he was starting to get a bad reputation in many other countries too.
So, in , he bought several ships and made his own fleet called the Sea Org, designed for hardcore Scientologists only. In spite of his many strange attributes, scandals and controversies, Hubbard can at least go down in history for his prolific writing ability.
Hubbard conducting a Dianetics seminar in Los Angeles, He actually holds the Guinness World Record for the most published works by one author, with over 1, books and stories in total, as well as being the most translated author for the same book.
He sold a lot of books, but their actual influence and effect on the world is seen as negative by many, with even Charles Manson allegedly coming up with ideas for his own cult after reading Dianetics.
Apr 26, Katie Vernon. It is applicable to every aspect of human existence and it is religion for the here and now. Hit enter to search or ESC to close.
Related Sites. Ron Hubbard. What is Scientology? HOME L. Play Video. A Brief Chronology on the Life of L. Watch it on LRonHubbard. Bare-faced Messiah: the true story of L.
Ron Hubbard. London: Joseph, Philadelphia: Whitmore Publishing, The Best American Magazine Writing New York: Columbia University Press, London: Deutsch, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, Behind closed doors: the power and influence of secret societies.
London: New Holland Publishers, Charismatic cult leaders. Minneapolis: The Oliver Press, Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, The road to total freedom: a sociological analysis of Scientology.
Renunciation and reformulation: a study of conversion in an American sect. New York: Julian Press, OCLC Portal Biografi. Portal Scientology.
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They found eavesdropping equipment, burglary tools and 48, documents. Several people were sentenced to five years in jail.
Mary Sue Hubbard, third wife of L. After two days of shredding, any documents that were too valuable to shred were buried.
He took two of his closest aides, Pat and Anne Broeker, with him in a 40 foot Bluebird motor home and traveled the Northwest before settling in Creston, CA, population , in the summer of Married three times, he had seven children, one of whom he later claimed he did not father.
He married his second wife, Sara Northrup Hubbard, before he divorced his first wife of 12 years. Claiming he had done scientific torture experiments on her, Sara called him paranoid and a schizophrenic.
He suggested she kill herself as a divorce would hurt his reputation. Hubbard's first wife wrote Sara a letter stating "Ron is not normal," hoping that Sara would be able to help him gain emotional stability as she was not able.
Hubbard took their daughter Alexia to Cuba, threatening to cut her out of his will. Their stormy marriage ended in and Alexia was returned to Sara.
Later he denied fathering her and didn't leave her a cent. Mary Sue Hubbard, his third wife, insisted on having a family dinner on Sundays in spite of Ron not being an affectionate or family man.
This is the only time he would see his kids. Oldest son, L. Ronald Hubbard, Jr. He split with the Scientology church in , saying his job did not make enough to support a family.
He changed his name to Ronald DeWolfe and accused his father of cavorting with mobsters and abusing drugs. The elder Hubbard retaliated by calling his son crazy.
Another son, Quentin, was a problem and an embarrassment. Confused about his sexual orientation, he tried suicide with a drug overdose and failed, and finally drove to Las Vegas, NV, parked in a deserted area, piped the exhaust into his car and killed himself at age 22, Hubbard expressed concern over the publicity, as it might discredit Scientology, but not over his son's death.
Although Hubbard claimed to be able to cure maladies with Dianetics, he suffered from long periods of moroseness, suicidal inclinations, allergies, arthritis, bursitis, conjunctivitis, duodenal ulcer and a heart problem.
He crashed a motor cycle in the Canary Islands in the early s breaking his arm and several ribs. He was in agony for months saying he was going to heal himself, but it didn't work.
By he was physically weak and deteriorating mentally. His hair, now gray with red streaks, hung to his shoulders and he had grown a stringy, unkempt beard and mustache.
His round face was sunken and his once ruddy complexion turned pasty. For 11 hours cars came and went, but no official was called until two lawyers had given the OK.
When the mortuary realized whose body they had, they called the county coroner. They were shown documents signed by Hubbard the day before his death that stated "due to religious beliefs" there should be no autopsy.
Blood tests were done, finger prints and photos of the body taken. He was cremated and his ashes scattered at sea. Two days later a gathering of his followers was told he had made a conscious decision to sever all ties with this world so he could continue his Scientology research in spirit form, lay down in bed and left.
But I sure could make it stick. Ron Hubbard". The Church experienced further challenges. In the course of developing Scientology, Hubbard presented rapidly changing teachings that some have seen as often self-contradictory.
In , Hubbard purportedly stepped down as executive director of Scientology to devote himself to research and writing.
In , facing criminal charges in France, Hubbard returned to the United States and began living in an apartment in Queens , New York. He hid first in an apartment in Hemet, California , where his only contact with the outside world was via ten trusted Messengers.
He cut contact with everyone else, even his wife, whom he saw for the last time in August In , as a result of FBI raids during Operation Snow White , eleven senior people in the church's Guardian's Office were convicted of obstructing justice, burglary of government offices, and theft of documents and government property.
In , Scientology took the German government to court for the first time. On January 24, , L. Ron Hubbard died at his ranch in Creston, California.
While Scientology generally refers to Miscavige -led Church of Scientology , other groups practice Scientology. These groups, collectively known as Independent Scientologists, consist of former members of the official Church of Scientology as well as entirely new members.
Bill Robertson, a former Sea Org member, was a primary instigator of the movement in the early s. The Advanced Ability Center was established by Hubbard's personal auditor David Mayo after February — a time when some of Scientology's upper and middle management split with Miscavige 's organization.
More recently, high-profile defectors Mark Rathbun and Mike Rinder have championed the cause of Independent Scientologists wishing to practice Scientology outside of the Church.
According to Scientology, its beliefs and practices are based on rigorous research, and its doctrines are accorded a significance equivalent to scientific laws.
Blind belief is held to be of lesser significance than the practical application of Scientologist methods. Scientology does not preach or impose a particular idea of God on Scientologists.
Rather, people are expected to discover the truth through their own observations as their awareness advances. As with all its tenets, Scientology does not ask individuals to accept anything on faith alone.
Rather, as one's level of spiritual awareness increases through participation in Scientology auditing and training , one attains his own certainty of every dynamic.
Accordingly, only when the Seventh Dynamic spiritual is reached in its entirety will one discover and come to a full understanding of the Eighth Dynamic infinity and one's relationship to the Supreme Being.
Many Scientologists avoid using the words "belief" or "faith" to describe how Hubbard's teachings impacts their lives. They perceive that Scientology is based on verifiable technologies, speaking to Hubbard's original scientific objectives for Dianetics, based on the quantifiability of auditing on the E-meter.
Scientologists call Dianetics and Scientology as technologies because of their claim of their scientific precision and workability.
Scientology presents two major divisions of the mind. These engrams are named Implants in the doctrine of Scientology. Hubbard said, "Implants result in all varieties of illness, apathy, degradation, neurosis and insanity and are the principal cause of these in man.
Ron Hubbard described the analytical mind in terms of a computer: "the analytical mind is not just a good computer, it is a perfect computer.
Errors are made based on erroneous data and is not the error of the analytical mind. Dianetic auditing is one way by which the Scientologist may progress toward the Clear state, winning gradual freedom from the reactive mind's engrams and acquiring certainty of his or her reality as a thetan.
Barrett , a sociologist of religion who has written widely about the subject, says that according to Scientology, the "first major goal is to go Clear.
Scientology asserts that people have hidden abilities which have not yet been fully realized. Auditing is a one-on-one session with a Scientology counselor or auditor.
Scientology teaches that the E-meter helps to locate spiritual difficulties. Douglas E. Cowan writes that the e-meter "provides an external, material locus for the legitimation of [Scientology] practice".
Scientologists depend on the "appearance of objectivity or empirical validity" of the e-meter rather than simply trusting an auditor's abstract interpretation of a participant's statements.
He also states that without the e-meter, "Scientology could not have achieved whatever status it enjoys as a new religious movement. Scientology uses an emotional classification system called the tone scale.
Scientology emphasizes the importance of survival , which it subdivides into eight classifications that are referred to as " dynamics ".
The Purification Rundown  is a controversial "detoxification" program used by the Church of Scientology as an introductory service.
Narconon is a "drug education and rehabilitation program" founded on Hubbard's beliefs about "toxins" and "purification".
The Introspection Rundown is a controversial Church of Scientology auditing process that is intended to handle a psychotic episode or complete mental breakdown.
Introspection is defined for the purpose of this rundown as a condition where the person is "looking into one's own mind, feelings, reactions, etc.
Scientology is vehemently opposed to psychiatry and psychology. Hubbard taught that psychiatrists were responsible for a great many wrongs in the world, saying that psychiatry has at various times offered itself as a tool of political suppression and "that psychiatry spawned the ideology which fired Hitler's mania, turned the Nazis into mass murderers, and created the Holocaust".
From , CCHR has campaigned in opposition to psychiatric treatments, electroconvulsive shock therapy , lobotomy , and drugs such as Ritalin and Prozac.
Scientology beliefs revolve around the immortal soul, the thetan. Hubbard taught that thetans brought the material universe into being largely for their own pleasure.
As a result, thetans came to think of themselves as nothing but embodied beings. Thetans are reborn time and time again in new bodies through a process called "assumption", which is analogous to reincarnation.
The Church of Scientology holds that at the higher levels of initiation " OT levels " , mystical teachings are imparted that may be harmful to unprepared readers.
These teachings are kept secret from members who have not reached these levels. The church says that the secrecy is warranted to keep its materials' use in context and to protect its members from being exposed to materials they are not yet prepared for.
These are the OT levels, the levels above Clear , whose contents are guarded within Scientology. The OT level teachings include accounts of various cosmic catastrophes that befell the thetans.
In the OT levels, Hubbard explains how to reverse the effects of past-life trauma patterns that supposedly extend millions of years into the past.
The thetans then clustered together, stuck to the bodies of the living, and continue to do this today. Scientologists at advanced levels place considerable emphasis on isolating body thetans and neutralizing their ill effects.
Excerpts and descriptions of OT materials were published online by a former member in and then circulated in mainstream media. This occurred after the teachings were submitted as evidence in court cases involving Scientology, thus becoming a matter of public record.
A large Church of Spiritual Technology symbol carved into the ground at Scientology's Trementina Base is visible from the air.
The Ethics system regulates member behavior,   and Ethics officers are present in every Scientology organization. Ethics officers ensure "correct application of Scientology technology" and deal with "behavior adversely affecting a Scientology organization's performance", ranging from "Errors" and "Misdemeanors" to "Crimes" and "Suppressive Acts", as those terms defined by Scientology.
Scientology asserts some people are truly malevolent, and Hubbard taught 20 percent of the population were suppressive persons , which includes some hopelessly antisocial personalities who are the truly dangerous individuals in humanity: "the Adolf Hitlers and the Genghis Khans, the unrepentant murderers and the drug lords".
A Scientologist who communicates with a suppressive person risks being declared a Potential Trouble Source. The term Fair Game is used to describe policies and practices carried out against people the Church perceives as its enemies.
Hubbard established the policy in the s, in response to criticism both from within and outside his organization. Hubbard and his followers targeted many individuals as well as government officials and agencies, including a program of illegal infiltration of the IRS and other U.
In Scientology, ceremonies for events such as weddings, child naming, and funerals are observed. Hubbard theorized in that the "aesthetic mind" is a phase of mental activity that "deals with the nebulous field of art and creation".
In August , Hubbard published the book Art that defines art as "a word which summarizes the quality of communication".
He also claimed that art is "the least codified of human endeavors and the most misunderstood". The book is used as a textbook for art courses in Scientology.
The internal structure of Scientology organizations is strongly bureaucratic with a focus on statistics-based management.
A survey estimated that 55, people in the United States claimed to be Scientologists. Worldwide estimates of Scientology's core practicing membership ranges between , and ,, mostly in the U.
Although the Church of Scientology claims to be the fastest growing religious movement on Earth, the church's estimates of its membership numbers are reportedly significantly exaggerated.
The highest ranking people in the Scientology hierarchy are the members of the Sea Organization, or Sea Org. Cowan and David G. Bromley state that scholars and observers have come to radically different conclusions about the RPF and whether it is "voluntary or coercive, therapeutic or punitive".
A article in the Los Angeles Times reported that in the s the church more commonly used private investigators, including former and current Los Angeles police officers, to give themselves a layer of protection in case embarrassing tactics were used and became public.
The organization also operates the Scientology archiving project, which aims to preserve the works of Hubbard on stainless steel tablets, encased in titanium capsules in specially constructed vaults throughout the world.
Many Scientologists' first contact with Scientology is through local informal groups and field auditors practicing Dianetics counseling.
In , Hubbard created a list of 63 celebrities targeted for conversion to Scientology. Ron Hubbard wrote, "The purpose of [the] Celebrity Centre is, to forward the expansion and popularization of Scientology through the arts.
Scientology operates eight churches that are designated Celebrity Centres , designed to minister to celebrity Scientologists. Former silent-screen star Gloria Swanson and actors Tom Cruise and John Travolta have spoken publicly about their commitment to Scientology, as has actress and musician Juliette Lewis.
Several Scientology organizations promote the use of Scientology practices as a means to solve social problems. Scientology began to focus on these issues in the early s, led by Hubbard.
The church developed outreach programs to fight drug addiction, illiteracy, learning disabilities and criminal behavior.
These have been presented to schools, businesses and communities as secular techniques based on Hubbard's writings. The Church of Scientology began its " Volunteer Ministers " program as a way to participate in community outreach projects.
Volunteer Ministers sometimes travel to the scenes of major disasters in order to provide assistance with relief efforts.
According to critics, these relief efforts consist of passing out copies of a pamphlet authored by Hubbard entitled The Way to Happiness , and engaging in a method said to calm panicked or injured individuals known in Scientology as a " touch assist ".
Accounts of the Volunteer Ministers' effectiveness have been mixed, and touch assists are not supported by scientific evidence.
The Church of Scientology is one of the most controversial religious organizations. A first point of controversy was its challenge of the psychotherapeutic establishment.
Another was a Time magazine article that attacked the church, which responded with a major lawsuit that was rejected by the court as baseless early in And a third is its religious status in the United States, formalized when the IRS granted the organization tax-exempt status in It has been in conflict with the governments and police forces of many countries including the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada,  France  and Germany.
Reports and allegations have been made, by journalists, courts, and governmental bodies of several countries, that the Church of Scientology is an unscrupulous commercial enterprise that harasses its critics and brutally exploits its members.
Scientology social programs such as drug and criminal rehabilitation have likewise drawn both support and criticism. Stephen A. Kent , a professor of sociology, has said that "Scientologists see themselves as possessors of doctrines and skills that can save the world, if not the galaxy.
In plain English, the purpose of Scientology ethics is to eliminate opponents, then eliminate people's interests in things other than Scientology.
Many former members have come forward to speak out about the Church and the negative effects its teachings have had on them, including celebrities such as Leah Remini.
Remini spoke about her split from the Church, saying that she still has friends within the organization whom she is no longer able to speak with.
Much of the controversy surrounding Scientology stems from the criminal convictions of core members of the Scientology organization.
In , a number of Scientologists, including L. Ron Hubbard's wife Mary Sue Hubbard who was second in command in the organization at the time , were convicted of perpetrating what was at the time the largest incident of domestic espionage in the history of the United States, called " Operation Snow White ".
This involved infiltrating, wiretapping, and stealing documents from the offices of Federal attorneys and the Internal Revenue Service.
Ron Hubbard was convicted in absentia by French authorities of engaging in fraud and sentenced to four years in prison.
An FBI raid on the Church's headquarters revealed documentation that detailed Scientology's criminal actions against various critics of the organization.
In " Operation Freakout ", agents of the church attempted to destroy Paulette Cooper , author of The Scandal of Scientology , an early book that had been critical of the movement.
Nine individuals related to the case were prosecuted on charges of theft, burglary, conspiracy, and other crimes. In , Scientology president Heber Jentzsch and ten other members of the organization were arrested in Spain on various charges including illicit association, coercion, fraud, and labor law violations.
In October , the Church of Scientology was found guilty of organized fraud in France. In , Belgian prosecutors indicted Scientology as a criminal organization engaged in fraud and extortion.
Scientology has historically engaged in hostile action toward its critics; executives within the organization have proclaimed that Scientology is "not a turn-the-other-cheek religion".
Many of Scientology's critics have also reported they were subject to threats and harassment in their private lives.
According to a Los Angeles Times article, Scientology had largely switched from using church members to using private investigators, including former and current Los Angeles police officers, as this gives the church a layer of protection in case investigators use tactics embarrassing to the church.
The officer involved in this particular case of surveillance and harassment was suspended for six months.
Journalist John Sweeney reported that "While making our BBC Panorama film Scientology and Me I have been shouted at, spied on, had my hotel invaded at midnight, denounced as a 'bigot' by star Scientologists, brain-washed—that is how it felt to me—in a mock up of a Nazi -style torture chamber and chased round the streets of Los Angeles by sinister strangers".
During the auditing process, the auditor collects and records personal information from the client. While the Church of Scientology claims to protect the confidentiality of auditing records, the Church has a history of attacking and psychologically abusing former members using information culled from the records.
The practice of shunning in Scientology is termed "disconnection". Members can disconnect from any person they already know, including existing family members.
Many examples of this policy's application have been established in court. The Sea Org originally operated on vessels at sea where it was understood that it was not permitted to raise children on board the ships.
Ron Hubbard to convince them that having an abortion was not against Scientology practices. In , The Times of India reported "Forced abortions, beatings, starvation are considered tools of discipline in this church".
A former high-ranking source reports that "some 1, abortions" have been "carried out by women in the Sea Organization since the implementation of a rule in the late 80s that members could not remain in the organization if they decided to have children".
Longtime member Astra Woodcraft reportedly "left Scientology for good when the church tried to pressure her to have an abortion". In March , Maureen Bolstad reported that women who worked at Scientology's headquarters were forced to have abortions, or faced being declared a " Suppressive Person " by the organization's management.
It was my baby, my body and my choice, and all of that was taken away from me by Scientology," said Lang. Australian Senator Nick Xenophon gave a speech to the Australian Parliament in November , about statements he had received from former Scientologists.
If they refused, they faced demotion and hard labour. Aaron says one staff member used a coat hanger and self-aborted her child for fear of punishment," said Senator Xenophon.
Scientology spokesman Tommy Davis dismissed such claims as "utterly meritless". A number of women have sued the Church of Scientology, alleging a variety of complaints including human trafficking, rape, forced labor, and child abuse.
In the s, Miscavige's organization took action against increased criticism of Scientology on the Internet and online distribution of Scientology-related documents.
In a U. In January , church lawyer Helena Kobrin attempted to shut down the newsgroup alt. However, the issuance of the message led to a great deal of public criticism by free-speech advocates.
The Church also began filing lawsuits against those who posted copyrighted texts on the newsgroup and the World Wide Web , and lobbied for tighter restrictions on copyrights in general.
Some of the DMCA 's provisions notably the Online Copyright Infringement Liability Limitation Act were heavily influenced by Church litigation against US Internet service providers over copyrighted Scientology materials that had been posted or uploaded through their servers.
Beginning in the middle of and ensuing for several years, the newsgroup was attacked by anonymous parties using a tactic dubbed sporgery by some, in the form of hundreds of thousands of forged spam messages posted on the group.
Some investigators said that some spam had been traced to church members. On January 14, , a video produced by the Church of Scientology featuring an interview with Tom Cruise was leaked to the Internet and uploaded to YouTube.
On January 28, , an Anonymous video appeared on YouTube calling for protests outside Church of Scientology centers on February 10, The Arbitration Committee of the Wikipedia internet encyclopedia decided in May to restrict access to its site from Church of Scientology IP addresses, to prevent self-serving edits by Scientologists.
The legal status of Scientology or Scientology-related organizations differs between jurisdictions.
The church argues that Scientology is a genuine religious movement that has been misrepresented, maligned, and persecuted.
Scientology has often encountered opposition due to its strong-arm tactics directed against critics and members wishing to leave the organization.
In the mid-sixties, the Church of Scientology was banned in several Australian states, starting with Victoria in On this point the report stated,.
It is the firm conclusion of this Board that most scientology and dianetic techniques are those of authoritative hypnosis and as such are dangerous Many scientology techniques are in fact hypnotic techniques, and Hubbard has not changed their nature by changing their names.
The Australian Church was forced to operate under the name of the " Church of the New Faith " as a result, the name and practice of Scientology having become illegal in the relevant states.
In the High Court of Australia ruled in a unanimous decision that the Church of Scientology was "undoubtedly a religion and deserving of tax exemption".
In , the IRS removed Scientology's tax-exempt status, asserting that its activities were commercial and operated for the benefit of Hubbard, rather than for charitable or religious purposes.
Scientology is officially recognized as a religion in the United States. Church of Scientology International in The New York Times noted in this connection that the Church of Scientology had funded a campaign which included a whistle-blower organization to publicly attack the IRS, as well as hiring of private investigators to look into the private lives of IRS officials.
Goldberg Jr. The committee met several times with the Scientology legal team and "was persuaded that those involved in the Snow White crimes had been purged, that church money was devoted to tax-exempt purposes and that, with Mr.
Hubbard's death, no one was getting rich from Scientology. The church was required only to resubmit new applications for exemption to the IRS Exempt Organizations EO division, which was told "not to consider any substantive matters" because those issues had been resolved by the committee.
Elsewhere, Scientology is recognized as a religion in Australia,   Portugal,  Spain,  Slovenia ,  Sweden,    Croatia ,  Hungary  and Kyrgyzstan.
Scientology is not recognized as a religion in Canada. The ruling ended a five-year legal battle by Scientologist Louisa Hodkin, who sought the legal right to marry at the Church of Scientology chapel in central London.
The opinion by five supreme court justices redefined religion in law, rendering the definition "out of date" in restricting religious worship to "reverence or veneration of God or of a Supreme Being".
Scientology has been accused of being "a business, often given to criminal acts, and sometimes masquerading as a religion".
In conjunction with the Church of Scientology's request to be officially recognized as a religion in Germany, around the German state Baden-Württemberg conducted a thorough investigation of the group's activities within Germany.
Course offerings ranged from German Marks DM Revenue from monthly, bi-monthly, and other membership offerings could not be estimated in the report, but was nevertheless placed in the millions.
Defending its practices against accusations of profiteering , the Church has countered critics by drawing analogies to other religious groups who have established practices such as tithing , or require members to make donations for specific religious services.
Since Germany has considered Scientology to be in conflict with the principles of the nation's constitution. It is seen as an anticonstitutional sect and a new version of political extremism and because there is "evidence for intentions against the free democratic basic order" it is observed by the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution.
Department of State said that Scientologists were discriminated against in Germany, but condemned the comparisons to the Nazis' treatment of Jews as extremely inappropriate, as did a United Nations Special Rapporteur.
State Department formally criticized Germany for discriminating against Scientologists and began to note Scientologists' complaints of harassment in its annual human rights reports,  as well as the annual International Religious Freedom Reports it has released from onwards.
France and Belgium have not recognized Scientology as a religion, and Stephen A. Kent , writing in , noted that recognition had not been obtained in Ireland , Luxembourg , Israel or Mexico either.
In Greece, Scientology is not recognized as a religion by the Greek government, and multiple applications for religious status have been denied, notably in and In the Netherlands , Scientology was granted tax exempt status in October The court ruled that because auditing fees and course costs were more expensive than most commercial education institutions, Scientology appeared to be aimed at making a profit.
Scientology maintains strict control over the use of its symbols, icons, and names. It claims copyright and trademark over its "Scientology cross", and its lawyers have threatened lawsuits against individuals and organizations who have published the image in books and on Web sites.
Because of this, it is very difficult for individual groups to attempt to publicly practice Scientology on their own, independent of the official Church of Scientology.
Scientology has filed suit against a number of individuals who have attempted to set up their own auditing practices, using copyright and trademark law to shut these groups down.
The Church of Scientology and its many related organizations have amassed considerable real estate holdings worldwide, likely in the hundreds of millions of dollars.
Most recently the Italian Supreme Court agreed with the American IRS that the church's financial system is analogous to the practices of other groups and not out of line with its religious purposes.
Based on letters from former followers of the religion, he said that there were "allegations of forced imprisonment, coerced abortions, and embezzlement of church funds, of physical violence and intimidation, blackmail and the widespread and deliberate abuse of information obtained by the organization".
Describing the available scholarship on Scientology, David G. Bromley and Douglas E. Cowan stated in that "most scholars have concluded that Scientology falls within the category of religion for the purposes of academic study, and a number have defended the Church in judicial and political proceedings on this basis.
Urban writes that "Scientology's efforts to get itself defined as a religion make it an ideal case study for thinking about how we understand and define religion.
According to the Encyclopedia of Religious Controversies in the United States , "even as Scientology raises questions about how and who gets to define religion, most scholars recognize it as a religion, one that emerges from and builds on American individualism and the spiritual marketplace that dominated s America.
Bromley comments that Scientology "could gain strength by adding to the new perspective on existence, the hope and human meaning that only a transcendent creed can give".
Bromley and Cowan noted in that Scientology's attempts "to gain favor with new religion scholars" had often been problematic.
Regis Dericquesbourg writes about the efficacy of Scientology in imparting knowledge: "Scientology indeed not only brings knowledge, it also brings personal introspection through auditing, and transmission in upper levels is not merely reading texts: what is transmitted is experienced through a solo or duo auditing experience.
Frank K. Flinn, adjunct professor of religious studies at Washington University in St. Louis wrote, "it is abundantly clear that Scientology has both the typical forms of ceremonial and celebratory worship and its own unique form of spiritual life.
While acknowledging that a number of his colleagues accept Scientology as a religion, sociologist Stephen A. Kent writes: "Rather than struggling over whether or not to label Scientology as a religion, I find it far more helpful to view it as a multifaceted transnational corporation, only one element of which is religious" [emphasis in the original].
Donna Batten in the Gale Encyclopedia of American Law writes, "A belief does not need to be stated in traditional terms to fall within First Amendment protection.
For example, Scientology—a system of beliefs that a human being is essentially a free and immortal spirit who merely inhabits a body—does not propound the existence of a supreme being, but it qualifies as a religion under the broad definition propounded by the Supreme Court.
Gordon Melton asserts that while the debate over definitions of religion will continue, "scholars will probably continue in the future to adopt a broad definition, thus including Scientology in a wider religious field.
The material contained in the OT levels has been characterized as bad science fiction by critics, while others claim it bears structural similarities to gnostic thought and ancient Hindu beliefs of creation and cosmic struggle.
Scholar Luigi Berzano of the University of Turin listed five religious characteristics of Scientology: a set of doctrines leading to a spiritual goal, a community of believers, an authority figure Hubbard , ritual practices, and "an ethical-moral view of life".
Hubbard grew up in a climate that was very critical of organized religion, and frequently quoted anti-religious sentiments in his early lectures.
Hubbard did not want to found a religion: he discovered that what he was talking about in fact was religion. This mainly happened when he had to deal with apparent memories from former lives.
He had to defend himself about this to his friends. He notes that Hubbard discussed religion and the concept of God even in the years leading up to the emergence of Scientology, and that he did not "rush into religion" but rather, "discovered it through the development of his work with pre-clears".
Drawing parallels to similar struggles for identity in other religious movements such as Theosophy and Transcendental Meditation , Frenschkowski sees in Hubbard's lectures "the case of a man whose background was non-religious and who nevertheless discovers that his ideas somehow oscillate between 'science' in a very popular sense , 'religion' and 'philosophy', and that these ideas somehow fascinate so many people that they start to form a separate movement".
Hubbard experiments with traditional religious language in a short piece written in called "The Factors", "a basic expression of Scientologist cosmology and metaphysics", reprinted in current Scientology literature.
Frenschkowski observes that the text is partly biblical in structure and that this development is a component of Scientology's metamorphosis into a religion, written at a point when the nature of the new movement was unclear.
The Church of Scientology denounces the idea of Hubbard starting a religion for personal gain as an unfounded rumor. Scientology can be seen as a UFO religion in which the existence of extraterrestrial entities operating unidentified flying objects UFOs are an element of belief.
Lewis ,  while Susan Palmer draws several parallels with Raelianism. Scientology is unique within the UFO culture because of this secretiveness, as well as because of the capitalist format under which they operate.
Scientology is also difficult to categorize. While it bears strong similarities to the Ashtar Command or the Aetherius Society , its emphasis upon the Xenu event as the central message of the group seems to place them within the ancient astronaut tradition.
Either way, Scientology is perhaps most different from other UFO groups in their attempt to keep all of the space opera stuff under wraps. They really would have preferred the rest of us not to know about Xenu and the galactic federation.
Alas, such secrets are hard to keep . Regardless of such statements by critics, Hubbard wrote and lectured openly about the material he himself called "space opera".
According to David G. Bromley , Scientology is "part therapy, part religion, part UFO group. It's a mix of things unlike any other religious group out there.
The general orientation of Hubbard's philosophy owes much to Will Durant , author of the popular classic The Story of Philosophy ; Dianetics is dedicated to Durant.
Vaughn Mccall, Professor and Chairman of the Georgia Regents University writes, "Both Freudian theory and Hubbard assume that there are unconscious mental processes that may be shaped by early life experiences, and that these influence later behavior and thought.
Joseph Cheesman Thompson , a U. Navy officer who had studied with Freud  and when writing to the American Psychological Association in , he stated that he was conducting research based on the "early work of Freud".
In Dianetics , Hubbard cites Hegel as a negative influence — an object lesson in "confusing" writing. Mann, Scientology is considered nondenominational, accepting all people regardless of their religions background, ethnicity, or educational attainment.
As noted, elements of the Eastern religions are evident in Scientology,  in particular the concept of karma found in Hinduism and Jainism. In the s, Hubbard was in contact with Jack Parsons , a rocket scientist and member of the Ordo Templi Orientis then led by Aleister Crowley , and there have been suggestions that this connection influenced some of the ideas and symbols of Scientology.
Gordon Melton have stated that Crowley's teachings bear little if any resemblance to Scientology doctrine.
Gordon Melton writes that Scientology has its roots in Esoteric thought. He cited the significance of understanding Scientology's appeal as aligned with Esoteric tradition.
The Church is a "significant revision" and "meaningful revitalization" within the esoteric tradition. Melton states that Scientology can also be traced back to Gnosticism, Manicheanism, Freemasonry and Theosophy.
According to James R. Lewis , Scientology is in the same lineage of supernatural religious movements such as New Thought. Scientology goes beyond this and refers to their religio-therapeutic practices as religious technology.
Lewis wrote, "Scientology sees their psycho-spiritual technology as supplying the missing ingredient in existing technologies—namely, the therapeutic engineering of the human psyche.
Hubbard was said to be an accomplished hypnotist, and close acquaintances such as Forrest Ackerman Hubbard's literary agent and A.
Ron Hubbard expertise in hypnosis led to the discovery of the Dianetic engram. Hypnotism plants, by positive suggestion, one or another form of insanity.
It is usually a temporary planting, but sometimes the hypnotic suggestion will not "lift" or remove in a way desirable to the hypnotist.
The word Scientology , as coined by L. The term scientology had been used in published works at least twice before Hubbard. In The New Word poet and lawyer Allen Upward first used scientology to mean blind, unthinking acceptance of scientific doctrine compare scientism.
These two triangles are present in the Scientology symbol. The lower triangle, the ARC triangle, is a summary representation of the knowledge the Scientologist strives for.
Among Scientologists, the letters ARC are used as an affectionate greeting in personal communication, for example at the end of a letter.
Scientologists seek to attain spiritual development through study of Scientology materials and auditing. The subject called Technology or Tech in Scientology jargon is structured in a series of levels or gradients of gradually increasing complexity.
The sequence of study "training" and auditing "processing" levels is termed the " Bridge to Total Freedom ", or simply "the Bridge". The Church of Scientology teaches the principle of reciprocity, involving give-and-take in every human transaction.
Bromley , religious studies professor, working toward being an "Operating Thetan" means moving up the Bridge to Total Freedom, "which at the highest level transcends material law".
He further emphasizes this belief of Scientologists: "You occasionally come across people in Scientology who say they can change the material world with their mind.
The South Park episode " Trapped in the Closet " publicized the story of Xenu , based directly on the actual Scientology Operating Thetan III document,  and accompanied by an onscreen caption reading "This is what Scientologists actually believe".
After explaining these beliefs, the character representing the church's president ultimately reveals to Stan that the church is in reality a money-making scam.
Paul Thomas Anderson 's film The Master features a religious organization called "The Cause" that has many similarities to Scientology.
Ron Hubbard. Remini, a TV actress and star, was a member of the Church of Scientology for over 30 years and a public proponent of Scientology for years before a public falling out in She is an executive producer of the series.
The series follows Remini as she explores the history and workings of the Church, discusses her experiences and interviews ex-members willing to speak out about alleged abuses of the Church.
The initial episode drew 2. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the belief system and practices. For the organization, see Church of Scientology.
For other uses, see Scientology disambiguation. Group of religious beliefs and practices created by American science fiction writer L. See also: Timeline of Scientology and History of Dianetics.
Main article: L. Further information: Early life of L. Ron Hubbard and Military career of L. Main article: Scientology and the occult.
Main article: Dianetics. Main article: Church of Scientology. Main article: Free Zone Scientology. Main article: Scientology beliefs and practices.
See also: Dianetics and Auditing Scientology. Main articles: Emotional tone scale and Science of Survival. Main article: Purification Rundown.
Main article: Introspection Rundown. Main article: Thetan. See also: Operating Thetan and Space opera in Scientology doctrine.
Main article: Fair Game Scientology. Main article: List of Scientology organizations. Main article: Volunteer Ministers. Main article: Scientology controversies.
See also: Scientology and the legal system. Further information: Disconnection Scientology. See also: Scientology and the Internet and Project Chanology.
Main article: Scientology status by country. Main article: Scientology as a business. Main article: Scientology and hypnosis. Main article: Scientology in popular culture.
New York: Time Warner. Scientologists have written of their desire to "make Ron the most acclaimed and widely known author of all time".
Posthumously, the Los Angeles City Council named a part of the street close to the headquarters of Scientology in , as recognition of Hubbard.
Ron Hubbard Centennial Day. In , eighteen years after Hubbard's death, the Church claimed eight million followers worldwide. According to religious scholar J.
Gordon Melton , this is an overestimate, counting as Scientologists people who had merely bought a book. Every Church of Scientology maintains an office reserved for Hubbard, with a desk, chair and writing equipment, ready to be used.
Kliever notes that Hubbard was "the only source of the religion, and he has no successor". Hubbard is referred to simply as "Source" within Scientology and the theological acceptability of any Scientology-related activity is determined by how closely it adheres to Hubbard's doctrines.
The RTC is the central organization within Scientology's complex corporate hierarchy and has put much effort into re-checking the accuracy of all Scientology publications to "ensur[e] the availability of the pure unadulterated writings of Mr.
Hubbard to the coming generations". The Danish historian of religions Mikael Rothstein describes Scientology as "a movement focused on the figure of Hubbard".
He comments: "The fact that [Hubbard's] life is mythologized is as obvious as in the cases of Jesus , Muhammad or Siddartha Gotama. This is how religion works.
Scientology, however, rejects this analysis altogether, and goes to great lengths to defend every detail of Hubbard's amazing and fantastic life as plain historical fact.
According to Rothstein's assessment of Hubbard's legacy, Scientology consciously aims to transfer the charismatic authority of Hubbard to institutionalize his authority over the organization, even after his death.
Hubbard is presented as a virtually superhuman religious ideal just as Scientology itself is presented as the most important development in human history.
Bromley of the University of Virginia comments that the real Hubbard has been transformed into a "prophetic persona", "LRH", which acts as the basis for his prophetic authority within Scientology and transcends his biographical history.
Hubbard is viewed as having made Eastern traditions more accessible by approaching them with a scientific attitude.
Hubbard, although increasingly deified after his death, is the model Operating Thetan to Scientologists and their founder, and not God.
Hubbard then is the "Source", "inviting others to follow his path in ways comparable to a Bodhisattva figure" according to religious scholar Donald A.
Scientologists refer to L. Ron Hubbard as "Ron", referring to him as a personal friend. In the late s two men began to assemble a picture of Hubbard's life.
Michael Linn Shannon, a resident of Portland, Oregon, became interested in Hubbard's life story after an encounter with a Scientology recruiter.
Over the next four years he collected previously undisclosed records and documents. Shannon's findings were acquired by Gerry Armstrong , a Scientologist who had been appointed Hubbard's official archivist.
Garrison, a non-Scientologist who had written two books sympathetic to Scientology, to write an official biography.
However, the documents that he uncovered convinced both Armstrong and Garrison that Hubbard had systematically misrepresented his life. Garrison refused to write a "puff piece" and declared that he would not "repeat all the falsehoods they [the Church of Scientology] had perpetuated over the years".
He wrote a "warts and all" biography while Armstrong quit Scientology, taking five boxes of papers with him. The Church of Scientology and Mary Sue Hubbard sued for the return of the documents while settling out of court with Garrison, requiring him to turn over the nearly completed manuscript of the biography.
Breckenridge ruled in Armstrong's favor, saying:. The evidence portrays a man who has been virtually a pathological liar when it comes to his history, background and achievements.
The writings and documents in evidence additionally reflect his egoism, greed, avarice, lust for power, and vindictiveness and aggressiveness against persons perceived by him to be disloyal or hostile.
At the same time it appears that he is charismatic and highly capable of motivating, organizing, controlling, manipulating and inspiring his adherents.
He has been referred to during the trial as a "genius", a "revered person", a man who was "viewed by his followers in awe".
Obviously, he is and has been a very complex person and that complexity is further reflected in his alter ego, the Church of Scientology.
In November , the British journalist and writer Russell Miller published Bare-faced Messiah , the first full-length biography of L.
He drew on Armstrong's papers, official records and interviews with those who had known Hubbard including ex-Scientologists and family members.
The book was well-received by reviewers but the Church of Scientology sought unsuccessfully to prohibit its publication on the grounds of copyright infringement.
Ron Hubbard, Messiah or Madman? Hagiographical accounts published by the Church of Scientology describe Hubbard as "a child prodigy of sorts" who rode a horse before he could walk and was able to read and write by the age of four.
However, contemporary records show that his grandfather, Lafayette Waterbury, was a veterinarian , not a rancher, and was not wealthy.
Hubbard was actually raised in a townhouse in the center of Helena. While some sources support Scientology's claim of Hubbard's blood brotherhood, other sources say that the tribe did not practice blood brotherhood and no evidence has been found that he had ever been a Blackfeet blood brother.
According to Scientology biographies, during a journey to Washington, D. Navy psychoanalyst and medic. Scientology texts present Hubbard's travels in Asia as a time when he was intensely curious for answers to human suffering and explored ancient Eastern philosophies for answers, but found them lacking.
He was impressed by the Great Wall of China near Beijing,  but concluded of the Chinese: "They smell of all the baths they didn't take.
The trouble with China is, there are too many chinks here. Despite not graduating from George Washington, Hubbard claimed "to be not only a graduate engineer, but 'a member of the first United States course in formal education in what is called today nuclear physics.
Scientology accounts say that he "studied nuclear physics at George Washington University in Washington, D. Scientologists claim he was more interested in extracurricular activities, particularly writing and flying.
According to church materials, "he earned his wings as a pioneering barnstormer at the dawn of American aviation"  and was "recognized as one of the country's most outstanding pilots.
With virtually no training time, he takes up powered flight and barnstorms throughout the Midwest. Hubbard also claimed to have written Dive Bomber ,   Cecil B.
Scientology accounts of the expedition to Alaska describe "Hubbard's re-charting of an especially treacherous Inside Passage , and his ethnological study of indigenous Aleuts and Haidas " and tell of how "along the way, he not only roped a Kodiak Bear , but braved seventy-mile-an-hour winds and commensurate seas off the Aleutian Islands.
The Church disputes the official record of Hubbard's naval career. It asserts that the records are incomplete and perhaps falsified "to conceal Hubbard's secret activities as an intelligence officer".
Navy told the Times that "its contents are not supported by Hubbard's personnel record. The Church of Scientology presents him as a "much-decorated war hero who commanded a corvette and during hostilities was crippled and wounded".
His attitude was that if you took your flag down the Japanese would not know one boat from another, so he tied up at the dock, went ashore and wandered around by himself for three days.
Hubbard's war service has great significance in the history and mythology of the Church of Scientology, as he is said to have cured himself through techniques that would later underpin Scientology and Dianetics.
According to Moulton, Hubbard told him that he had been machine-gunned in the back near the Dutch East Indies.
Hubbard asserted that his eyes had been damaged as well, either "by the flash of a large-caliber gun" or when he had "a bomb go off in my face".
He was never recorded as being injured or wounded in combat and never received a Purple Heart. According to the Church,.
Hubbard conducts a series of tests and experiments dealing with the endocrine system. He discovers that, contrary to long-standing beliefs, function monitors structure.
With this revolutionary advance, he begins to apply his theories to the field of the mind and thereby to improve the conditions of others.
Scientology accounts do not mention Hubbard's involvement in occultism. He is instead described as "continu[ing] to write to help support his research" during this period into "the development of a means to better the condition of man".
Hubbard broke up black magic in America Ron Hubbard was still an officer of the U. Navy, because he was well known as a writer and a philosopher and had friends amongst the physicists, he was sent in to handle the situation.
He went to live at the house and investigated the black magic rites and the general situation and found them very bad Hubbard's mission was successful far beyond anyone's expectations.
The house was torn down. Hubbard rescued a girl they were using. The black magic group was dispersed and destroyed and has never recovered.
The Church of Scientology says Hubbard was "sent in" by his fellow science fiction author Robert Heinlein , "who was running off-book intelligence operations for naval intelligence at the time".
However, Heinlein's authorized biographer has said that he looked into the matter at the suggestion of Scientologists but found nothing to corroborate claims that Heinlein had been involved, and his biography of Heinlein makes no mention of the matter.
The Church of Scientology says Hubbard quit the Navy because it "attempted to monopolize all his researches and force him to work on a project 'to make man more suggestible' and when he was unwilling, tried to blackmail him by ordering him back to active duty to perform this function.
Having many friends he was able to instantly resign from the Navy and escape this trap. Following Hubbard's death, Bridge Publications published several stand-alone biographical accounts of his life.
Marco Frenschkowski notes that "non-Scientologist readers immediately recognize some parts of Hubbard's life are here systematically left out: no information whatsoever is given about his private life his marriages, divorces, children , his legal affairs and so on.
Ron Hubbard House in Washington, D. In late , Bridge published a comprehensive official biography of Hubbard, titled The L.
This most recent official Church of Scientology biography of Hubbard is a 17 volume series, with each volume focusing on a different aspect of Hubbard's life, including his music, photography, geographic exploration, humanitarian work, and nautical career.
It is advertised as a "Biographic Encyclopedia" and is primarily authored by the official biographer, Dan Sherman. During his lifetime, a number of brief biographical sketches were also published in his Scientology books.
His works of fiction included some novels and short stories. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. American science fiction author and the founder of the Church of Scientology.
Tilden, Nebraska , U. Creston, California , U. Main article: Early life of L. See also: Written works of L. Main article: Excalibur L.
Main article: Military career of L. See also: Scientology and the occult and Affirmations L. See also: L. Ron Hubbard and psychiatry and Scientology and psychiatry.
Main article: History of Dianetics. See also: Scientology and Timeline of Scientology. See also: Scientology controversies.
Main article: Sea Org. Main article: L. Ron Hubbard bibliography. See also: Bibliography of Scientology and Written works of L. Biography portal.
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